In India there are seven edible oil seed crops, namely groundnut, rapeseed & mustard, soybean, sunflower, sesame, safflower and niger, blessed by the benefit of the diverse agro-climatic areas. Oilseeds are important segment of tropical agriculture as they provide access to nutrition through protein and oil to humans and livestock. Edible oils are crucial for human nutrition, as they are energy dense with a high fat content. Human body needs some of the vital acids like Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA), which are not synthesized by the human body on its own, which obligates us to take from external sources. As vegetable oils are excellent source for PUFA, Mono-unsaturated fatty acids, Vitamins and others, an attempt was made to highlight the core health benefits of major vegetable oils.